Virological monitoring and resistance to first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with HIV-1 treated under WHO guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

TitleVirological monitoring and resistance to first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with HIV-1 treated under WHO guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsGupta R.K, Hill A., Sawyer A.W, Cozzi-Lepri A, von Wyl V., Yerly S, Lima V.D, G√ľnthard HF, Gilks C., Pillay D
JournalLancet Infect Dis
Volume9
Pagination409-17
Date PublishedJul
ISBN Number1473-3099
Accession Number19555900
Keywords*Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, *Drug Monitoring, *Drug Resistance, Viral, Adult, Anti-HIV Agents/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Female, HIV Infections/*drug therapy, HIV-1/*drug effects/isolation & purification, Humans, Male, RNA, Viral/blood, Treatment Failure, Treatment Outcome, Viral Load
Abstract

Antiretroviral-therapy rollout in resource-poor countries is often associated with limited, if any, HIV-RNA monitoring. The effect of variable monitoring on the emergence of resistance after therapy with commonly used drug combinations was assessed by systematic review of studies reporting resistance in patients infected with HIV with a CD4 count of fewer than 200 cells per muL treated with two nucleoside analogues (including a thymidine analogue) and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. 8376 patients from eight cohorts and two prospective studies were analysed. Resistance at virological failure to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors at 48 weeks was 88.3% (95% CI 82.2-92.9) in infrequently monitored patients, compared with 61.0% (48.9-72.2) in frequently monitored patients (p<0.001). Lamivudine resistance was 80.5% (72.9-86.8) and 40.3% (29.1-52.2) in infrequently and frequently monitored patients, respectively (p<0.001); the prevalence of at least one thymidine analogue mutation was 27.8% (21.2-35.2) and 12.1% (5.9-21.4), respectively (p<0.001). Genotypic resistance at 48 weeks to lamivudine, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (thymidine analogue mutations), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears substantially higher in less frequently monitored patients. This Review highlights the need for cheap point-of-care viral-load tests to identify early viral failures and limit the emergence of resistance.

Short TitleThe Lancet. Infectious diseases
Alternate JournalThe Lancet. Infectious diseases